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发育里程碑:如厕训练

                   发育里程碑:如厕训练

                                      萨拉.亨利
    如厕训练:你该期望什么时候开始?
    开始对宝宝进行如厕训练并没有特定的年龄界限。一些孩子在1824个月大的时候就发展了这项必要的身体和感知能力,然而别的孩子可能要到34岁才准备好(男孩通常比女孩稍微晚一点)。一些孩子在短短几天里就掌握了这个技巧,但是对于其他的一些孩子来说,有可能有花一年甚至更长的时间。
    是什么导致了这么大的时间差异呢?答案是对时机的把握。儿科医生们有个关于如厕训练的说法:如果你2岁开始训练,那么3岁能学会;如果你3岁开始训练,仍然是3岁就能学会。“如果在孩子准备好的时候开始训练这项技能,那么有可能只需要一个月”,Denise Aloisio这样说,他是纽约罗切斯特市一名行为发展方面的儿科医生,“但是如果你错过了出现这些信号的时期或者没等到这些信号出现就迫不及待开始训练,那就会需要六个月甚至更长的时间”。
    准备就绪的信号:
    如果你想取得成功,那么你的孩子必须要在身体机能上准备好再开始如厕训练,这意味着他可以三个小时甚至更长时间不尿不拉(这意味着他的膀胱肌肉已经发育得能够憋住尿了)。同时他需要白必须上厕所时的身体感觉信号,并能提前告诉你(在你考虑到这些之前你不要期望得到任何成就)。如果他能自己穿上并且脱掉裤子会使这件事情变得更加容易。如果他不会解扣子的话,就不要给他穿有扣子的工装裤。
    身体和心理上的准备充分并不是唯一的因素,积极性才是关键。如果你的孩子表现出了独立的意愿也表现出了对于模仿别人上厕所的习惯的兴趣,这或许是开始进行如厕训练的最佳时机了。在孩子学会去便盆尿尿之前应该先能分辨什么时候要拉臭臭,因为他们通常一天只有1-2次有便意,并且通常是在相同的时间。
    你可以做些什么:
    作为家长,你的任务是使得这项如厕训练尽可能自然而然没有任何压迫感。保持一种放松和积极的态度,鼓励你的孩子熟悉他自己的便盆。让他在商店里挑选一个便盆,然后让他去玩玩,瞧瞧里面的构造,把他的泰迪熊放在上面。然后问一下孩子想不想坐上去——一开始穿着衣服——这样他就会逐渐习惯坐在上面的感觉。如果他想改天再坐,那就不要强迫他马上去坐。用尽量简单易懂的词汇去给他解释这个便盆是用来做什么的:这是在他不穿尿不湿之后尿尿和拉便便的时候用的。(你可以使用任何感觉舒服的可以解释尿尿和便便的单词,当然了一定要确保孩子能理解。)
    到这时你的孩子或许你已经见过你或者其他人使用厕所很多次了。他这时或许只对观看别人上厕所感兴趣。榜样的作用会使得新事物的神秘感和恐惧感消失,所以就让他在旁边看着。等他穿着衣服坐在便盆上适应一周后,把他尿布里的东西倒进便盆中,让他明白什么东东是应该进到便盆里的。
一旦你的孩子开始愿意使用便盆,那就让它成为日常生活的一部分——一开始在早餐后或者洗澡前进行——逐渐地从一天一次到一天几次。孩子成功了要及时鼓励,孩子出现意外或者倒退要接受,学会忘掉。
不要急着冲马桶:孩子们把尿液和便便看作是自己身体的扩展,他们或许会对排泄在马桶中的粪便感兴趣并且感到骄傲。一些孩子甚至会喜欢对他们的便便说拜拜。
    注意不要逼迫孩子或者喋喋不休。跟大人一样,当有人不断干涉自己但自己又不能够具备掌控力时,他会不容易接受别人的意见。相反,观察你的孩子在上厕所之前姿势或者面部的改变。例如,如果他抓自己或者哼哼唧唧,这些就暗示着你需要温柔地提醒孩子使用便盆了。冷静亲切地处理意外和退步。你要平静地收拾干净,然后告诉宝宝下次试试用他的便盆。你或许也想在这阶段将他的塑料的尿不湿换成纺织布的尿不湿。
    如果你选择一个合适的时机——当你的家里的一切都很平静的时候——开始这个如厕训练过程那么你更有可能成功。作为一个结果导向的家长,这些时机看起来是符合逻辑的:还有几个星期你的第二个宝宝就要出生了,或者很快你的孩子就要去学前班了,或是你打算搬去一个新房子了。但是2岁的孩子是很叛逆的,你越是让他们明显的感觉到你的目的性,他们越是有可能不按你的要求来。所以,放弃订立期限的想法,一切顺其自然,让你的孩子享受这个过程。
    你要注意什么:
    如果你发现在对孩子进行如厕训练时,你经常生气或者有挫败感,或者你的孩子看上去很抗拒,那么你们俩都需要休息一下了。过多的压力会搞砸整个训练,所以等你重新获得耐心并且你的孩子开始更加认同时再开始——这可能需要几天甚至几个月的时间。如果你选择跟孩子怄气,那么你不可避免的会失败的——如厕训练只有在你的孩子自愿合作时才可能被他掌握。
    如果你的孩子不情愿使用便盆或者出现便秘的情况,那你也需要停止如厕训练。如果你的孩子排便很少(少于一周三次),或者他的便便不是很大块就是硬硬的、卵石状的,或者他排便很困难,你需要询问医生他是不是便秘了。首先通过丰富孩子的食谱(香蕉对于排便很有利,西梅和其他水果对于排便也很有利)和多喝水来解决掉这个问题,然后再重新开始这项训练。
    首要注意的:
    一旦你的孩子开始有规律地使用便盆了,你就要主动地给他从尿不湿换成幼儿训练纸裤。为进入学前班做好准备,你也需要帮助你的孩子实现从便盆向使用厕所的转变。大部分孩子需要很长时间才能适应休息和保持夜间干燥。不过如果你的孩子还没准备好采取这些措施也不要担心,等他准备好学习这些新的针对大孩子的技巧时,他会做到的。(而不是再早点)

原文链接:  http://www.babycenter.com/0_developmental-milestone-toilet-training_63952.bc?page=1
作者:by Sarah Henry
Reviewed by the BabyCenter Medical Advisory Board

 

Developmental milestone: Toilet training
by Sarah Henry
Toilet training: What to expect when
No magic age signals the ideal time to start the process of toilet training. Some children develop the necessary physical and cognitive skills as early as 18 to 24 months, whereas others aren't ready until they're 3 or 4 (boys are often slightly later than girls). Some children get the knack in a few short days, while it can take others a year or more.

What accounts for the wide age range in mastering this skill? Timing. Pediatricians have a saying about toilet training: If you start at 2 you'll be done by 3; if you start at 3 you'll be done by 3. "If you catch them when they're ready, it may only take a month," says Denise Aloisio, a developmental-behavioral pediatrician in Rochester, New York. "But if you miss the signals or don't wait for their cues, it can take six months or more."
Signs of readiness
Your child must be physically ready to start potty training before you have any chance of success, meaning he can hold urine and stay dry for three hours or more (this indicates that his bladder muscles are sufficiently developed to store urine). He also needs to be able to recognize the physical signs that signal when he has to go, and act on them before anything comes out (no small feat when you've never had to think about this before). It makes it easier, too, if he can pull his clothes up and down by himself. Steer clear of overalls if he can't undo the clasps.

Physical and mental readiness aren't the only factors involved. Motivation is key. If your child demonstrates a desire for independence and shows an interest in imitating others' bathroom habits, it may be an auspicious time to plunge into the process. Children may figure out how to have a bowel movement before they learn to urinate in the potty because they typically only have BMs once or twice a day, usually at the same time.
What you can do
Your job as a parent is to make the toilet-training process as natural and non-threatening as possible. Keep a relaxed and positive attitude, and encourage your child to get accustomed to his potty. Let him help pick the potty out at the store, then let him play with it, look inside, sit his teddy bear on it. Then, ask him if he wants to sit on it — with his clothes on at first — so that he can get used to how the seat feels. If he wants to take a rain check on this, don't push it. Explain how the potty is used in simple terms that he can grasp: "This is for making pee and poop in when you're ready to stop wearing diapers." (Use whatever words you're comfortable with for urine and feces, but be sure he understands them.)

By now your child has probably seen you and your partner use the toilet on many occasions. He may be more interested in just watching at this point. Role models take the mystery and fear out of new things, so let him watch. After about a week of familiarizing him with the potty with his clothes on, empty the contents of his diaper into the potty, so he sees what's supposed to go in there.

Once your child is willing to use the potty, make it part of his routine — start with after breakfast or before his bath — and gradually increase from once to several times a day. Praise him for his success and brush off accidents or no-shows.

Don't rush to flush: Kids see pee and poop as an extension of their own bodies. They may be fascinated by and proud of what they put in the potty. Some children also like to wave bye-bye to their BMs.

Be careful not to push your child or nag. Just like grown-ups, children are much less receptive when someone is constantly on their case than when they feel like they're in charge. Instead, watch your child for changes in posture or facial expressions that signal he has to go. If he grabs himself or grunts, for instance, let these be your cues to gently remind him about the potty. Handle accidents and setbacks calmly and kindly. Just clean up the mess matter-of-factly and suggest that next time he try using his potty. You may also want to switch from plastic disposable diapers to cloth diapers at this stage.

You're more likely to have success with toilet training if you choose a time to plunge into the process when all is reasonably quiet on the home front. As a deadline-oriented adult, it might seem logical to start training a few weeks before the next baby is due, just before your child goes to preschool, or when you're planning to move to a new house. But 2-year-olds are contrary creatures, and the more they sense your not-so-hidden agenda, the less inclined they are to go along with it. So ditch the deadline, act casual about the whole thing, and let your child "own" the experience.
What to watch out for
If you find yourself getting angry or frustrated about potty progress, or if your child seems to resist toilet training, consider it a sign that you both need to take a breather. Too much pressure to perform can sabotage the whole exercise, so wait until you've regained your patience and your child seems more open to the idea — it could be a couple of days, or even months. If you choose this battle, you will inevitably lose — toilet training can only be mastered with your child's voluntary cooperation.

You should also stop the toilet training if your child is reluctant to use his potty or becomes constipated. If your child has infrequent bowel movements (less than three per week), if he passes either large stools or hard, pebbly stools, or if it is difficult for him to pass a bowel movement, talk with his doctor about possible constipation. Address his health problem first by varying his diet (bananas are good for firming up BMs while prunes and other fruits are good for loosening them) and getting him to drink lots of liquids. Then you can try toilet training again.
What's ahead
Once your child is using the potty regularly, you'll gradually make the move from diapers to training pants during the day. In preparation for preschool, you may also need to help your child make the shift from the potty to the toilet. Most children take longer to conquer naptime and nighttime dryness. Don't worry, though, if your child is not ready to take these toileting steps. When he's ready to learn these new big-kid skills, he will (and not a moment sooner).

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我也是沂南的,老乡

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真不错,学习了。

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我的如厕训练还不错哦

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我家宝宝的如厕训练也还可以啦,就是还不会自己擦屁股,不过现在正在训练她,应该很快就能自己擦了

发育里程碑:如厕训练  发育里程碑:如厕训练
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